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The following extract from a recent publication puts the question of the soul in another way, and perhaps, will give us some idea of the trend of modern Western thought regarding it.

The phrase religious insight is in itself vague. Is it not possible to give the phrase a definite content without departing from the critical attitude? One may be helped to such a definition by asking oneself what element has tended to fall out of the life of the modern man with the decline of the traditional disciplines. According to Mr. Walter Lippmann, the conviction the modern man has lost is that "there is an immortal essence presiding like a king over his appetites." But why abandon the affirmation of such an "essence" or higher will, to the mere traditionalist? Why not affirm it first of all as a psychological fact, one of the immediate data of consciousness, a perception so primordial that, compared with it, the deterministic denials of man's moral freedom are only a metaphysical dream? One would thus be in a position to perform a swift flanking movement on the behaviourists and other naturalistic psychologists who are to be regarded at present as among the chief enemies of human nature. One might at the same time be in a fair way to escape from the modernist dilemma and become a thorough-going and complete modern.


The philosophers have often debated the question of the priority of will or intellect in man. The quality of will that I am discussing and that rightly deserves to be accounted super-rational, has, however, been associated in traditional Christianity not primarily with man's will, but with God's will in the form of grace. The theologians have indulged in many unprofitable subtleties apropos of grace. One cannot afford, however, as has been the modern tendency, to discard the psychological truth of the doctrine a long with these subtleties. The higher will must simply be accepted as a mystery that may be studied in its practical effects, but that, in its ultimate nature, is incapable of formulation. Herein the higher will is not peculiar. "All things," according to the scholastic maxim, "end in a mystery." The man of science is increasingly willing to grant that the reality behind the phenomena he is studying not only eludes him, but must in the nature of the case ever elude him. He no longer holds, for example, as his more dogmatic forbears of the nineteenth century incline to do, that the mechanistic hypothesis, valuable as it has proved itself to be as a laboratory technique, is absolutely true; its truth is, he admits, relative and provisional.

The person who declines to turn the higher will to account until he is sure he has grasped its ultimate nature is very much on a level with the man who should refuse to make practical use of electrical energy until he is certain he has an impeccable theory of electricity. Negatively one may say of the higher will, without overstepping the critical attitude, that it is not the absolute, nor again the categorical imperative; not the organic and still less the mechanical; finally, not the "ideal" in the current sense of that term. Positively one may define it as the higher immediacy that is known in its relation to the lower immediacy—the merely temperamental [156] man with his impressions and emotions and expansive desires—as a power of vital control. Failure to exercise this control is the spiritual indolence that is for both Christian and Buddhist a chief source, if not the chief source, of evil. Though Aristotle, after the Greek fashion, gives the primacy not to will but to mind, the power of which I have been speaking is surely related to his "energy of soul," the form of activity distinct from a mere outer working, deemed by him appropriate for the life of leisure that he proposes as the goal of a liberal education.... The energy of soul that has served on the humanistic level for mediation appears on the religious level in the form of meditation. Religion may of course mean a great deal more than meditation. At the same time humanistic mediation that has the support of meditation may correctly be said to have a religious background. Mediation and meditation are after all only different stages in the same ascending "path" and should not be arbitrarily separated.

Article: Humanism: An Essay on Definition by Irving Babbitt, pp. 39-41. From Humanism and America: Essays on the Outlook of Modern Civilization, edited by Norman Foerster.



It has been interesting to note the spread of hyperthyroidism at this time, and various troubles connected with the thyroid gland. May not these conditions be a substantiation of the Oriental theory? Many people from force of circumstances and strained economic conditions are leading an abnormal sex life, and are celibate. Others, from what may be a mistaken idea of spiritual demands, reject the normal marriage state, and pledge themselves to a life of celibacy. Owing to these conditions the force is raised to the centre which is its goal, and reaches the throat. The whole condition being abnormal and the man or woman being as yet emotionally centred, and the mental equipment (so necessary in true creative work) being relatively mediocre, there is no ability to use this creative power, and there ensues an over-stimulation of the thyroid gland. Several such cases have been noted by us and seem to substantiate this position. This is one direction in which investigation and use of the scientific method of massing evidence to prove or disprove an hypothesis would appear to be capable of application. In the aggregate of cases and of testimony, light on this matter may appear. When the transfer is normal and not premature the outcome is along the line of recognised creative work, literature, the drama, music and the arts in general.